Building Community Capacity in Disaster Management

Natural environment is defined as a space where people live in together with all living and non-living things. Natural environment is also natural resources. Natural resources on this earth are geo resources and geo hazard. Geo resources is a natural resources that is used to fulfil people needs, like water, animal, energy, and so on. Geo hazard is a natural accident which endanger people and potential to cause some destructions such as drought, fire, earthquake, tsunami, and whirlwind.

Disaster risk is when hazard and vulnerability come together. An accident can not be called by disaster if no one harmed, so that the disaster risk, can not be happened when no vulnerability. For instance, when a landslide happened in unoccupied land, so no victims there, it can not be claimed as a disaster. While when the landslide happened in a densely populated area (high vulnarability) and caused a lot of victims, we claim it as a disaster.

Indonesia is an archipelago with a very high geo hazard. So, government should make a plan related to natural environment and disaster management. In this 2012, government is trying to formulate targets and  policies consist of  pollution and destruction management, early warning system, disaster  management, climate change, and implementation of sustainable development. Besides that also explained about the exist problems and challenges. From those are found in natural environment program there are a lot of problems related to capacity of human resources and the institution problem. Therefore it is important to see the elements can build individual capacity and organization.

Chaskin et al. (2001) presented framework in developing community capacity. In that framework there are some strategies of community development. The first is Leadership development concentrated to skills, commitment, and individual effectivity in community development process. The second, organizational development including in it building a new organization and organization strengthen, so they can work better and take a new performance. The third, community organizing possesses assosiation aspect from community function and mobilisation of stakeholders. The last, interorganizational collaboration to build organisational infrastructure in community to be forwarded to the development of relationship and colaborative cooperation in organizational level.

There is also another theory of community based and driven development. In this theory is needed the role of external agent to create the success from community based development. The role of this external agent is as facilitator and supervisor of government programs. We found that there are some steps to be done in successing disaster management program from Chaskin Theory. Besides, external agent is needed as the facilitator and supervisor of government program. Government has made institutions related to disaster management as Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB). BNPB has some delegation structures for regional level. In this case, government delegators have been delegated, but one thing to be concerned is community awareness related to disaster. There are some ways such as forming agents for information socialization, providing information center to create multidiscipline and multiorganizational cooperation, improving cooperation with another organizations and institutions. In implementing all those ways, there should be external agents that facilitate and supervise program implementation. Colleges Students can take a big role in it.

Related to the community capacity improvement, one of the methods is by training community agents earlier involving educational institutions (Elementary School, Junior and Senior high school). The students are taught knowledge about disaster through a mechanism created to  make them able to communicate what they learned to their parents. It will be better if there is a special curriculum about disaster. The awareness of American people about disaster is improved effectively through this method.

The next step is opening information center to create to create multidiscipline and multiorganizational cooperation. Government shoud guarantee information accessable for all citizen in sensitive area of disaster to be active in reporting the accidents. Besides, information centers from independent institution, colleges students, and media are opened, so an active communication is conducted. It improves the readiness of citizen.

The last is improving cooperation with another institution. Some of the methods is by distributing the role and doing simulation. Simulation should involve many parties, one of them is educational institution that has the curriculum about disaster. Colleges students have a very big role in every stages of the disaster management, especially to be inovators, facilitators, and supervisors of government programs implementation.

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